Welcome to the RMWQAA Website! 

Monthly Blog

Check our Blog page regularly for continually changing info, articles, news, and more!

  • 16 Dec 2021 9:40 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    I was once called to a meeting with a high management-level supervisor and I asked what I should do to be prepared for this meeting (I didn’t know what I was being called in for). His answer was no need to prepare but “Wear your square shoulders”.  Well, I wasn’t sure exactly what that meant so Google helped me:  to prepare to deal with something difficult in a determined way, or to show that you are prepared to do this. In the end, I wasn’t in trouble, exactly, but I was asked to do things differently and he knew I wasn’t going to like it. The rest of that story isn’t important, but the phrase has stuck with me.

    I think preparing for a sanitary survey or any audit fits this phrase perfectly. Do something difficult in a determined way and show you are prepared to do this.

    A sanitary survey is usually associated with a drinking water system and it is essentially an audit of everything you do in a water system. This type of audit is basically the same as a lab audit or inspection for a discharge permit. No matter what you call it, an audit can be scary and very stressful. There are things you can do to prepare yourself and your organization to help alleviate this stress, albeit not all of it!

    First, every aspect of our work requires documentation. If you don’t write it down, it didn’t happen. You must do the documentation required every day, day in and day out! You can’t put this off. When you are preparing for an audit, you can check the documentation, know where it is kept and make sure any cross-outs are done correctly (ONE line, date and initials). If you find the documentation is not in order, make sure it is done correctly from that point on. You can’t go back and re-create documentation. You can write a memo to clarify that your entity made procedural changes to correct the issue, but that’s really about all you can do. When the auditor finds it – because let’s face it – they ALWAYS do! Then you explain, yes, we found that as well. Here is our corrective action memo (yes, write it down) and as you can see, from the date of this memo forward, we have been documenting this properly.

    Second, clean and then clean some more. I’m talking white glove style, like your in-laws are coming to visit. I really believe auditors have a sixth sense. They can find things you never would have even considered. The thing is, if your plant, lab, etc. are clean then the perception is you have your act together. Now that doesn’t mean they won’t come across something you’ve let slip or have an observation of a different way to do things, but it leaves a good impression. Just like when the in-laws visit! An oil stain could lead them to ask about what kind of oil you use, which could lead to asking if it is NSF approved and if it isn’t, that could lead to a significant deficiency or violation. Clean.

    Control the audit as much as possible. Set the schedule so you can have the appropriate people available for the auditor to talk to. Plan this out and make sure everyone knows they will be participating. I like to send an agenda with the appointment (or follow up to their appointment) along with specific meeting place maps. One time I didn’t do this and the auditor was waiting at the hand pump instead of the office. Not a big deal but wasted some time for sure. You know they will want to see just about everything in your system so plan the routes and time it will take to tour the sites.

    Next, talk to your friends and neighbors. See what challenges they have faced during recent audits. There’s usually something auditors focus on every year. When a new rule is implemented, for instance, they will be making sure you have met the requirements of the rule. Speaking of your friends and neighbors – maybe ask someone to do a “pre-survey” of your system. This can really help point out things you may have been overlooking for years.

    Prepare people or yourself to talk to auditors. I’m not suggesting you hide anything; however, you also don’t have to point out things you know you could do better. When an auditor asks a question, make sure you understand what they are asking then answer it concisely. This isn’t the time to tell stories or add extra information. If you don’t understand the question, ask the auditor to re-phrase it. If you don’t know the answer, do not pretend like you do. It is ok to not know the answer! You could say, "I don’t know, I would have to look at my SOP or ask my supervisor". Then the auditor can choose to ask for the SOP or ask your supervisor. That’s OK! Silence…prepare for the auditor to leave very awkward pauses and silence. Don’t try to fill in the silence. Politely wait for them to get to their next question. You can also move the tour along by asking if they would like to go to whatever the next stop is. It is uncomfortable to stand there and wait for them to ask the next question. It’s a tactic. I’m not suggesting that auditors are mean and nasty, but it is a trained tactic of auditing to get you to keep talking and tell them something which will lead them down another path.  

    Also, make sure people are respectful to the auditors. Do NOT argue with them. If you disagree, you can ask them to show you the regulation they are referring to so you can understand their point of view. If at that point, you still disagree, you can discuss it after the report comes out and go from there. It is rarely to your benefit to argue with them. Say thank you. Yes, basic manners but you’d be surprised.

    An audit should be approached as a learning experience. Improving what we do to protect public health is a good thing. I know we all take a lot of pride in our work, so it hurts when someone says we are doing it wrong. Learn from it and make corrections – “Wear you square shoulders”!

    If anyone would like more information or help with an upcoming audit – let me know – I’d be happy to help!

    Sherry Scaggiari is the Environmental Compliance Principal at the City of Aurora. Sherry has a chemistry degree from CSU and made her start in environmental contract labs over 30 years ago. She has worked for the city of Aurora for 14 years. She is responsible for compliance for Aurora Water including supervising the Quality Control Laboratory.

  • 15 Nov 2021 10:22 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    We’ve had a major success in our Milfoil Weevil program.  Some of the preliminary results are shown in cute pictures from Bob Krugmire – see below!

    When we talk about the Standley Lake Weevils – it’s often with a lighthearted tone. They’ve got names like Wilber and Wilma Weevil. We joke about our new job titles of weevil farmers – definitely atypical water utilities work.  And a couple of us even have stuffed animal weevils. (Note – if anyone is looking for a good Christmas present for me…I want one.)

    But in truth, this is so much more than a fun pastime. This program represents what our Westy team excels at: Seeing the big picture, getting to the root of a problem, and finding the right solution – even if it’s far outside the box.  And – we’re not afraid to get our hands dirty and try new things in the process.

    Mature Weevil on Fingertip

    Figure 1 - Mature Weevil on fingertip.

    Many entities treat their water supplies with chemicals to keep algae and other unwanted contaminants at bay. Here at Westminster though, we have an entirely different approach.  We work hard to keep our water supply clean and healthy to begin with – so that those expensive and unhealthy chemical treatments aren’t necessary.  The health of Standley Lake’s ecosystem is the basis of our raw water supply program - Mother Nature is one of our best tools in the effort to maintain exceptional water quality.  And through decades of hard work, Standley Lake is now one of the best source waters in the State. Seriously.

    A healthy lake ecosystem results in cleaner source water. Clean source water results in substantially reduced water treatment costs. It reduces unhealthy treatment residuals in our drinking water and results in better tasting water for our customers.  

    But Standley Lake does have a health issue that staff works hard to mitigate - an invasive species called Eurasian Milfoil. This milfoil chokes out native plants, reduces biodiversity, and ultimately increases the potential for blue-green algae blooms (which can cause taste/odor issues and can release cyanotoxins which are extremely dangerous).  Additionally, beds of milfoil will create areas of low oxygen that can increase the release of nutrients, sulfur, and even metals from the soils.

    Use of chemicals to treat for milfoil can be extraordinarily expensive (think $1M+ per treatment) and they run the potential of killing a lot more than milfoil - even causing fish kills.  (Yum yum! Who wants to drink that water?)  Instead of using chemicals, Westminster developed one of the only sustained Milfoil Weevil populations in the West – a program that started back in 2002.  These weevils eat the invasive milfoil and keep it under control naturally.  The program has worked fantastically and has had a measurable impact on the health of the lake.

    But the population isn’t as big as it could be.  And there isn’t a vendor that can provide us with more weevils…the last vendor closed back in 2011.  

    Figure 2 - Weevil on Eurasian Milfoil Plants

    So, our water quality staff went to work to find an alternative solution, and started piloting a program to harvest existing weevils in the lake and put them in safe enclosures where they can grow and thrive with less fear of predation. (They are tasty fish snacks.)  Yesterday – we had our first look into the success of the pilot – and we are so excited to share that we have a lot of weevils!  Staff identified at least three healthy, adult weevils in that enclosure – which is more direct observations of adult weevils than we’ve seen in years of observations across the lake.  (There are many more weevils that aren’t directly visible.) Our pilot enclosures have had their first significant success, and it is looking promising that we will be able to successfully increase our weevil population – ultimately resulting in an even healthier lake!

    The grand total cost of this water quality solution?  Less than $500 plus staff time.

    Finally, we would like to give a big shout out to Kelly Cline, John Conor Creber, and the rest of the water quality team for their ingenuity, curiosity, and willingness to go the extra mile for the benefit of our community.  But truly – the shout out goes to the team across PWU.  This is one program of many that sets Westminster apart as a leader in our respective fields.

    This month’s blog post was written by Sarah Borgers, with photos by Bob Krugmire, and was provided by Lindie Aragon, all of whom are with the City of Westminster.

  • 19 Oct 2021 8:38 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    The month of October is always a scary time of the year. It’s a time to binge scary movies, visit all the haunted houses and decorate your house as spooky as possible. However, if you’re looking for something truly scary this month, look no further than the Colorado River Basin shortage.

    On August 16, 2021, the Bureau of Reclamation declared the first-ever water shortage for the Colorado River Basin.  An exceptionally dry spring in the Upper Basin (Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming) and low runoff conditions have left Lake Mead and Lake Powell at record low reservoir levels.

    Five-year projections released from the Bureau of Reclamation (https://www.usbr.gov/lc/region/g4000/riverops/crss-5year-projections.html) show Lake Mead with a 66% chance of dipping below 1,025 feet of elevation in 2025. When reservoir elevations start dropping, the government will enact mandatory water cuts. This is scary for states on the Lower Basin (Nevada, Arizona, California) who rely on these reservoirs for drinking water. With a water shortage declared with Lake Mead dropping below 1,075 feet in elevation, Arizona and Nevada can expect water allocation slashes starting in 2022. The next set of federal cuts would come once the reservoir hits 1,050 feet in elevation and could realistically happen next year.

    This graph taken from http://mead.uslakes.info/level.asp shows Lake Mead’s water level for the years 2019, 2020, and 2021 up until October 18.

    Projections are not only scary for Lake Mead but also for Lake Powell which shows a 3 percent chance of dropping to levels next year where the Glen Canyon Dam cannot generate power. While 3 percent may seem unlikely, the projections show a jump to 34 percent in 2023. The Glen Canyon Dam produces around five billion kilowatt-hours of hydroelectric power annually and provides power to a Western population that is rapidly growing.

    This graph taken from http://powell.uslakes.info/level.asp shows Lake Powell’s water level for the years 2019, 2020, and 2021 up until October 18.

    The Colorado River’s existing management guidelines are set to expire in 2026 with very important negotiations looming. Can a balance be agreed upon that provides enough inflow to the Lower Basin but still leaves enough for the Upper?  With so many parties interesting in securing water, the future of the Colorado River Basin is indeed enough of a scare to get you through this Halloween season.

    Danny McCausland is an Analyst II at Metro Water Recovery. He has 8 years experience working in the water quality field.

  • 21 Sep 2021 11:28 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    During a recent road trip to Utah, I found myself having to navigate around the I-70 road closures due to the recent mudslides the state has seen. This got me thinking of how these mudslides are not only having an impact on infrastructure but also the environmental impact they have on things such as water quality.


    But what exactly is a mudslide? A mudslide is a type of landslide that is the fast-moving flow of debris, earth, or rock that moves down a slope. As defined by the CDC, ”Mudslides develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground and results in a surge of water-saturated rock, earth, and debris”. This debris then flows down the slope, often with such a force that it destroys anything in its path. Depending on the location of the mudslide it can often cause damage to things from roads to rivers. These natural disasters are often seen in areas that have had wildfires, previous landslides, steep slopes, recent downpours, and high exposure to surface runoff.

    As seen from the recent road closures in Colorado, these natural disasters can cause some serious damage. But where do the mudslides stop? These slides have a difficult time crossing rivers and this often leads to the contents of the slide flowing through the river. As a result, we see major increases in the amount of sediment (or turbidity) in these rivers which leads to less clear water. This increase in turbidity tends to increase temperature and decrease dissolved oxygen levels which can often harm aquatic life. 

    With high turbidity, there is also a decrease in UV exposure which can potentially lead to the growth of harmful algae blooms such as cyanobacteria. During my trip, I had some direct experience with high cyanobacteria blooms at Zion National Park. Though this was caused by a monsoon rather than a mudslide, it was interesting seeing the impact that these blooms have on the water. These toxic blooms create a film on top of the water that can contribute to the decrease in UV exposure in the river as well as a decrease in oxygen and nutrients that are needed for aquatic life. It is also toxic to ingest and will often leave any person or animal that drinks the water very sick. There are no known remedies for curing these effects and in severe cases can lead to death.

    The environmental impacts of mudslides are large, and we can see their dramatic effects anywhere in the world, including here in Colorado. With mudslides comes an increase in turbidity, which can lead to an increase in water temperatures, a decrease in dissolved oxygen, and potentially a decrease in UV exposure. All these factors can cause harm to aquatic life in our natural water systems. All this said, while mudslides often feel like a nuisance with the various road closures they can cause, mudslides also have a detrimental impact on our ecosystem that I believe is important to be aware of.








    This blog was written by Michael Hendricks, a Water Quality Supervisor for GEI Consultants He has 7 years of experience in the industry and holds a BA in Biological Science from Colorado State University in Fort Collins.

  • 25 Aug 2021 9:42 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    After studying fire ecology, I decided to abandon pre-med to pursue a career in Ecology. I never knew there were species of plants that needed forest fires for their seeds to germinate. I learned that a truly healthy forest is often only possible after the clearing of undergrowth from fire. Fascinating facts of fire ecology drive home the importance of fire. But the drying out of once-wet places (i.e the Pacific Northwest) combined with human encroachment have resulted in devastation. In many paces this is becoming the norm. Fires are more intense and spread larger than ever due in part to years of fire suppression. In Colorado we’ve had a wetter than usual start to 2021. I was curious about the forecast for our regional fire season.

    Before I dive into the data, I want to say that this was a “quick and dirty” search. I make a lot of generalizations and recognize that there isn’t always a perfect comparison between location and precipitation/fires. To keep it broad, I started by googling current fires in Colorado and found a map showing all 2021 fires. I overlaid it with a precipitation map showing 2021 rainfall (Figure 1). I was curious whether areas where fires occurred were drier than the rest of the state.

    Figure 1: Map of Colorado precipitation from January 1, 2021 through August 13, 2021 overlaid with Colorado’s 2021 fires from Coloradoan.com. The numbers correspond with the numbers in Table 1.

    The largest of the fires in Colorado this year was the June Oil Springs Fire which burned near the Utah border (Figure 1, #4). Based on the precipitation map, there were numerous green dots indicating less rainfall relatively close to the fire. The Western Slope clearly did not get as much rainfall as the mountains and Front Range early in 2021.

    The second largest fire in Colorado this year was the Morgan Creek Fire outside of Steamboat Springs in the Northeast-Central part of the state. Nearby precipitation totals were a lot higher than the Grand Junction area with some red dots indicating high rainfall relatively close the location of the fire. I had a hard time finding an update on the Morgan Creek fire. As of a few weeks ago, it was only 24% contained. Hopefully the higher precipitation is helping control that fire. Two very small fires also occurred in the southwest portion of the state where rainfall was moderate (Figure 1, #’s 6 and 7).  

    2020 was one of the most devastating wildfire years in Colorado history. I wanted to compare the 2020 fire season to 2021’s fire season. I tracked down monthly precipitation data for August 2019 through July 2020 and August 2020 through July 2021 for four different locations, 1) the Denver area, where tons of spring rain forced the cancellation of many of my kid’s soccer practices, 2) the Yampa weather station which is relatively close to the 2021 Morgan Creek Fire, 3) the Grand Lake Station which was relatively close to the extremely destructive 2020 Cameron Peak Fire (Colorado’s Largest in history) and East Troublesome Fire which burned a combined 402,725 acres or 520 square miles (9News 2021), and finally, 4) a weather station in Grand Junction which is close to 2020’s third largest fire, Pine Gulch which burned 139,007 acres and is also relatively close to the 2021 Oil Springs Fire.

    There are a few things that are apparent from these figures (Figures 2-5), 1) Denver received much more rain in early 2021 than any of the other three sites graphed. 2) Grand Junction was particularly dry in the graphed timeframe which explains the fires in both years. 3) The Grand Lake dataset is fairly interesting. February 2020 saw a relatively high amount of precipitation. While months leading up to the Cameron Peak and East Troublesome Fires were by no means wet, there was still some decent rainfall which would make you think that the extreme fires that occurred should not have been as bad as they were. However, none of the data tell the full picture on the rainfall patterns (all at once vs spread over time), which might help explain the extreme fire situation. The beetle kill was also a particularly destructive component of the 2020 fires.

    Figures 2-5: Monthly precipitation for four sites from August 2019 through July 2021. Data from Colorado State University's Colorado Climate Center.

    What does all this mean for the rest of the 2021 fire season? Well, based on the data I looked at, I have no idea. Clearly the Western Slope needs more rain. I turned to the experts for predictions for the rest of the fire season. According to the Predictive Services National Interagency Fire Center (who knew there was such a thing!):

    “Above normal significant fire potential is predicted in August and September across the northwest corner of Colorado through much of Wyoming, South Dakota, and northwest Nebraska.”

    “Late June and July precipitation and moderating fire weather conditions resulted in a decrease in new significant fire activity as well as reduced growth on existing large fires.”  

    “The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlook for August indicates drier and warmer than normal conditions over northern portions of the Rocky Mountain Area. More extensive warming and drying is projected for the autumn period, especially west of the Continental Divide.”

    Check out the link in the references to read the full story, but it appears the wetter weather is helping reduce fire risk for parts of the state, but unfortunately the rain has not been reaching the entire state leaving many areas at risk for more fires.

    When compiling the data on the fires that have occurred in 2021 in Colorado (Table 1), I was surprised to find that all were either confirmed to have been started by lighting or are being investigated but likely started by lighting. After briefly discussing wildfires in California with a colleague, I learned that more than one of those extremely destructive fires was started by transmission lines rather than natural factors. While wildfires these days are becoming more and more destructive, it is frustrating to learn that some of California’s wildfires were preventable. Despite the benefits fire brings to forests, with the spread of people deeper into the forest, fires must be minimized and controlled.

    Table 1: Colorado’s 2021 wildfires as of August 23, 2021 from Coloradoan.com.

    Name of Fire

    Location on Map

    % Contained

    Date Started


    # Acres Burned

    Morgan Creek Fire


    24 as of 8/12/21




    Muddy Slide Fire


    70 as of 8/6/21




    Sylvan Fire


    90 as of 8/20/21




    Oil Springs Fire


    99 as of 7/6/21




    Wild Cow Fire


    100 as of 6/28/21


    Lightning Suspected


    Trail Canyon


    90 as of 6/22/21




    Vosburg Pike


    100 as of 7/17/21


    Under Investigation



    9News. https://www.9news.com/article/news/local/wildfire/colorado-2020-historic-wildfire-season/73-c9458147-c945-45e6-bea9-a1d426cca102  Accessed August 23, 2021.

    Colorado State University; Colorado Climate Center. Precipitation map and precipitation data.  https://climate.colostate.edu/  Accessed August 13, 2021.

    Coloradoan.com. Hazard Mapping System: Fire and Smoke.  https://data.coloradoan.com/fires/ Accessed August 13, 2021.

    Predictive Services National Interagency Fire Center. 2021. National Significant Wildland Fire Potential Outlook. Issued: August 1, 2021.

    Natalie Love is the Laboratory Director at GEI Consultants, Inc. GEI conducts Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Testing, low-level nutrient analysis, and benthic macroinvertebrate identifications. She lives in Denver with her husband, 2 daughters, and Belgian Malinois, Nacho.

  • 29 Jul 2021 8:45 AM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    Do you ever feel like you’re in a Parks and Rec episode when dealing with resident water quality complaints?

    “There’s a sign in the park that says DO NOT DRINK the sprinkler water and I made some tea with it and now I have an infection” -Parks and Rec episode

    I got the idea for this month’s blog recently when I was asked by a resident, “Why does my washing machine smell like doo-doo water”. Easy fix, bleach and sanitize your washing machine for mold and mildew.

    It can always be tricky trying to diagnose water quality issues at a residence or business when there are multiple factors that can affect the taste and odor. As I am very confident in our water quality and take great pride in our water, I find it a fun challenge to be able to troubleshoot residents’ water quality issues and teach them about water quality and our treatment techniques. Many complaints start with water heater issues or old refrigerator filters. Yes, I’ve been asked multiple times to test resident’s ice cubes!

    If we can’t resolve a problem over the phone, we offer to test the resident’s tap water to compare any differences to our distribution lab data. Here are some of the questions to ask and ways to troubleshoot possible water quality issues to help you determine whether the issue is related to taste/odor problems from the water itself or something within the residence.

    • Make sure the water is always cold out of the kitchen tap when comparing water quality between sources; hot water chemistry can be completely different due to water heater conditions
    • Suggest annual or bi-annual water heater preventative maintenance to the resident to mitigate issues by flushing out iron and manganese sediment and keep the unit running efficiently
    • Recommend cleaning out tap diffusers, especially if new galvanized plumbing has been installed
    • Water softeners or any other separate treatment systems like reverse osmosis can cause issues if not properly maintained or cleaned regularly
    • New filters and water softener media should be flushed or seasoned when installed
    • Old refrigerator filters/water lines and scale build up on fridge water lines can cause taste and cloudiness issues
    • Clean scaling in small water lines with vinegar solution for different appliances; check out Youtube for instructions on specific brands
    • New residents to the area often have a different taste for the water and it takes time to acclimate to the taste
    • Taking new medications can alter you taste of drinking water and COVD symptoms has raised new issues with loss of taste
    • Is the glassware actually clean? Dishwasher performance or residual detergent left on glassware can create taste problems
    • Solar Water heaters on the top of the roof can also cause issues (yes, I’ve actually run across this issue)
    • If there is an odor coming from the sink, it is most likely coming from the drain and can be improved by cleaning with baking soda, vinegar, hot water, and even orange peels ground up with a garbage disposal
    • Chlorine taste/odor can be mitigated by filling a pitcher of water and storing it in the fridge overnight to allow the chlorine to dissipate out
    • Cloudiness in the water often happens with temperature fluctuation and will also dissipate within 5 minutes
    • Color issues, often an orange or black tint, are most likely iron or manganese, potentially from hot water heaters
    • Compare the outside tap water quality with the kitchen tap water quality or nearby distribution sampling site to assess the location of the problem
    • There could also potentially be a change in water quality from the change in seasons that is messing with the chemistry in the water which should pass soon
    • Lastly, are staff flushing hydrants in the area or was there a watermain break that disrupted services?

    If all else fails, have the Distribution Department flush the area to bring in fresh water and hopefully resolve the issue. There are multiple issues than can occur that could potentially cause taste and odor issues so having a few questions in your pocket to help diagnose the problem can make the resident feel at-ease and be more willing to help and hopefully figure out the issue faster. It also helps to keep an ongoing list of water complaints to help with future issues and diagnosis if certain locations or neighborhoods experience similar problems.

    I figured this blog could help staff that deal with water complaints as well as distribution samplers that are asked questions by residents while sampling throughout the community. It is always fun working and troubleshooting with the public! Keep calm and Enjoy!

    John Winterton is the Laboratory Supervisor at the City of Northglenn. He’s been working with Northglenn for over 5 years in water treatment and water quality.

  • 30 Jun 2021 1:41 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    Ah Summer, (queue your favorite summer song playing in the background).  For some that means children are out of school, crowded swimming pools, garden fresh tomatoes and zucchini, and vacations especially after lockdown for over a year.  For the quality control lab at Aurora Water that means Lead and Copper season.  Yes, from June to September each year Lead and Copper are the masters of my work day. 

    The Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) is changing so this year’s sampling event is different.  Although we are still governed by the “old” rule, we want to prepare for implementation of the revisions to the rule.  This year we are essentially working both rules.  As a result, we identified a few goals to accomplish this year in relation to lead and copper sampling:

    1. Encourage increased participation under the current rule.  Many of our repeat participants are customers whose homes have copper pipe with lead solder, which will not be valid samples under the new rule but for now we are still welcoming samples from those customers.  The challenge is that many of these customers have been participating in the study for years but recently we have seen a decrease in participation.  So this year we offered an incentive for those customers to continue to participate in the study.
    2. Help our repeat customers that qualify to sample under both rules adjust to the change from sampling 1 liter to 5 liters.  We revised our sampling instructions with simplified language and included photographs of the sampling process.
    3. Identify areas that potentially have lead service lines and encourage those customers to participate in the study.  We worked with other city departments to identify which areas potentially have lead service lines and added those to our sampling pool.  We initiated a postcard campaign to reach out to these customers requesting participation and we offered an incentive to encourage participation of these new customers.  We also removed any households that are confirmed to not have lead service lines. 
    4. We determined it would be prudent to gather as much data as possible.  We do not know what to expect from these new sample sites that have not been tested before.  As we identify any potential lead lines through sampling we can work to get those service lines verified and replaced, if they are determined to be lead lines.  As GI Joe would say, “ Knowing is half the battle.”

    This seems to be working out so far.  We have about 200 customers that have agreed to collect samples this year.  We began delivering sample kits earlier this month and already have 80 samples returned.  Which is encouraging because in 2020 we only received 54 samples total.

    Once this year’s samples have been analyzed we will have a better indication of what we are facing for the future under the revised rule.  Hopefully by the time the revised rule changes are implemented we will have all the kinks worked out and have our new sampling pool in place full of customers that are ready to sample when requested.

    Happy Summer!


    Adele Rucker is the RMWQAA President and a Sr. Laboratory Analyst at the City of Aurora's Quality Control Laboratory.

  • 13 May 2021 10:59 AM | Tyler Eldridge (Administrator)

    As a water and scientific centric community, much of our focus is centered on emerging contaminants, challenges in treatment, new technologies, or whether that beer made from recycled water can really be trusted. These topics often leave me brain-drained, wondering if I will be able to retain or understand any of the information I just received. That drain is relatively easy to overcome once I get back home, get some rest, and focus on life outside of work. There is however, a lingering drain on my psyche this time of year, leaving myself and likely others, feeling pressured to make major changes at all levels when it comes to the conservation of water. Reading about droughts, water shortages, or companies taking water improperly with little to no punishment (*ahem* Nestle!) can be mentally taxing.

    I often wonder if I am doing enough to help conserve water and reduce usage in my household, while simultaneously convincing myself “there’s only so much I can do.” In fact, there is SO MUCH I can do! Lately I have found that the smallest of changes throughout my day have improved my mentality with regards to being water conscious, and I wanted to use this month’s blog to remind us of some well-known, as well as relatively unknown methods of conserving water. If I can reduce my water usage by just one gallon a day, then that means one to two days’ worth of an individual’s recommended fluid intake is available for use elsewhere, or at least not being used unnecessarily! Stringing any number of the methods below can increase that number drastically. How many measures can you add to your daily routine?

    The Obvious:

    You’ve likely heard of or implemented these steps already, but it wouldn’t be a list of water saving tips without them!

                   -Fix leaks, replace washers, limit drips: One of the best ways to reduce water use is to eliminate uncontrolled use of water. Washers are cheap, and in hoses they are simple to replace, start there if you find leaks on the way to the yard or garden. Sink faucets take a bit more time, but washers can easily be replaced (a quick google helps if you are unsure). A leak that drips just once a minute can amount to roughly a liter of water a day, but often drips occur at ten times that rate.1 

                   -Reduce shower time: One minute off your shower time can save 2.5 gallons based on the average showerhead, according to the EPA. Any amount of time you can shave off here adds up quickly!

                   ­-Install low-flow shower heads and toilets: More efficiency and less flow means less water use, easy fix here if you can install your own. If renting like myself, you can always reach out to the landlord about making these minor changes and the importance of reducing water usage. If not for you, maybe they will think about making the switch between tenants!

                   -Don’t let water run in general if not in use: This goes for all tasks water related, if it’s not actively in use, make sure the faucet is off. Brushing your teeth, washing your hands, doing the dishes, all of these involve the use of the faucet, but not the entire time. One minute of faucet use can equate to a gallon of water at an average flow setting.2

    The Less Obvious:

    Some of these may come into play on a daily basis already, but some less apparent methods for saving could be added in!

                   -Collect water for general use rather than letting it flow down the drain: Nobody wants to jump in the shower right as you turn the faucet on. If you really want to go into full water savings mode, use a bucket to collect the cold water as the shower warms up, then use it on general tasks around the house: watering plants, watering pets, rinsing dishes, cleaning in general! This can work in any scenario where you may need to run water until it reaches a desired temperature. Collect water in a pitcher to put in the fridge for cold drinking water later rather than running the faucet until it is cold (I suppose ice is a thing too…)

                   -Drink tap water over bottled: Aside from the impact plastic has on the environment, it also takes at least twice as much water to make a plastic bottle than then bottle can hold. Reusable bottles or cups all the way!3 

                   -Defrost food ahead of time in the fridge: Rather than setting the food in water, or running water over it to defrost.

                   -Use the garbage disposal less frequently: Scrape food waste off into the trash as much as possible, disposals require running water to be effective. This can also reduce the time required to rinse off dishes in general.

                   -Wash dishes and laundry in full loads: Math would dictate that 2 large loads of laundry uses less water than 3 medium loads. I can always count on finding random clothes or hand towels that can fill up a load if I really need to get a smaller set of clothes washed!

                   -Find efficiency in the garden: I could create a whole blog on garden efficiency itself! There are plenty of venues to save water here:4 

    • Mulch around plants to allow for less evaporation of water
    • Water locally near the base of the plant
    • Don’t water if the soil is still visibly wet
    • Use drip irrigation if possible
    • Collect water for outdoor use during rain events – Most areas in Colorado now allow for the collection of up to 110 gallons of rain water to use on the lawn or garden.5 Or use that water collected from the methods above!
    • Water in ground plants in the morning to reduce evaporation
    • Plant native vegetation where possible, they are used to our arid climate
    • Mow the lawn higher and with sharp blades, both can reduce water use of lawns
    • Install timers, forgetting a running sprinkler is great for the lawn in the short term, but terrible for water conservation all around (guilty as charged..) They can also be delayed, or sense rain events to reduce unnecessary watering

    The Unknown or “Life Changers”:

    These methods are further removed from water itself and may require a good deal of work to implement on your own and as a population. Producers will produce so long as customers continue to use their products, so it takes a large group of individuals making adjustments over time to see real change, but it can be done! Props to those of you who may already be participating in the following:

                   -Eat less meat: Some of you reading this have likely already taken this route, so you are well ahead of my water saving footprint! Meat products require water use in keeping the animals alive directly with water, as well as growing their food source. Fruits and veggies cut out the middle man (middle cow?) and only require a water source and some TLC. Even substituting a beef meal with a chicken meal can provide a major reduction in water usage! Denver Water helps highlight the differences in water usage among food sources in this article. 

    Food water footprint


           -Drive less when possible: It requires roughly 2.5 gallons of water to refine a single gallon of gas. Why not combine climate benefits with water resource benefits and walk or bike to those nearby locations instead? If nothing else, do your best to avoid hoarding gasoline in general… https://www.cbsnews.com/news/gas-shortage-panic-colonial-pipeline-cyberattack/

                   -Opt in to Xeriscape Rebate Programs: A number of cities across the state offer programs that help rebate or mitigate the cost of replacing water guzzling lawns. Greeley, for example, will rebate $1 per square foot of bluegrass turf removed and replaced up to 2000 square feet! Obviously there are some stipulations and applications involved, but it is possible to receive money, use less water, and reduce time spent mowing every week. Check in with your City to see if they have similar options, and if not, reach out to City Council to see if they have plans or are interested in creating a similar program!

    This is by no means a comprehensive list, so feel free to find methods that fit with your lifestyle. Even implementing just one of the above tips into your daily routine can make an impact on water usage, and leave you feeling happy with the effort you’ve made!


    1. https://water.usgs.gov/edu/activity-drip.html

    2. https://www.greenamerica.org/save65gallons

    3. https://www.watercalculator.org/footprint/the-hidden-water-in-everyday-products/

    4. https://www.hgtv.com/outdoors/gardens/planting-and-maintenance/25-ways-to-conserve-water-in-your-garden-pictures

    5. https://extension.colostate.edu/topic-areas/natural-resources/rainwater-collection-colorado-6-707/

    *Tyler Eldridge is the Data and Asset Manager for the City of Greeley's Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation Facility, he also helps maintain the website and memberships for the RMWQAA.

  • 20 Apr 2021 2:29 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    If you work in the water or wastewater field you have probably heard a lot lately about per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). So what is PFAS? It is a group of man-made chemicals that have been manufactured and used throughout the world, including the US since the 1940s, and are found in many consumer products such as microwave popcorn bags, pizza boxes, fast food wrappers, shampoo, dental floss, stain repellents, and non-stick cookware. PFAS manufacturing and processing facilities, airports, and military installations that use firefighting foams are some of the main sources of PFAS. PFAS may be released into the air, soil, and water, including sources of drinking water. Scientists call them “forever chemicals'' because their chemistry keeps them from breaking down under typical environmental conditions.

    The two main PFAS chemicals that we hear a lot about are: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) which is used in the process of making Teflon and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) which was the key ingredient in Scotchgard, a fabric protector made by 3M, and numerous stain repellents. I can remember having my carpets professionally cleaned and being offered (at an additional charge of course) the application of Scotchgard. This would make my carpet repel and block stains and with three kids why wouldn’t I want it!? It sounded like a miracle product.

    So, why are PFAS important?  There is evidence that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse health outcomes in humans. The most consistent findings include higher cholesterol rates. Some studies have also noted low infant birth weights, effects on the immune system, cancer (PFOA), and thyroid hormone disruption (PFOS). In May 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a revised lifetime health advisory of 70 ng/L for individual, or combined, PFOA and PFOS concentrations. This is a health advisory, not a standard. Certain PFAS can accumulate and stay in the human body for long periods of time.

    What does this mean for drinking water and wastewater facilities? Currently, PFAS chemicals aren’t regulated in Colorado and the EPA hasn’t established drinking water regulations yet. However, many drinking water facilities participated in the 2020 Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment’s free testing program that was offered to public drinking water systems serving communities, schools, and workplaces and also to fire districts with wells. This project tested for PFAS throughout the state in treated drinking water from public water systems, groundwater and surface water sources used for drinking water, and wells serving fire districts. The results can be found here

    On March 11, 2021, the EPA published the proposed fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5). UCMR 5, as proposed, would require drinking water facilities to sample for 30 chemical contaminants between 2023 and 2025. These chemicals include 29 PFAS and lithium. EPA is currently accepting public comment on the proposed UCMR 5. Labs will be able to use either of two EPA validated analytical methods for potable (drinking) waters (Methods 533 and 537.1).

    As for wastewater,  the Water Quality Control Commission’s Policy 20-1 was approved in July 2020. The policy provides guidance on how to implement permit conditions for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances under the existing narrative standard. The policy also sets values for a subset of PFAS, called translation levels. These translation levels may be used to implement permit effluent limits for PFAS in Colorado Discharge Permit System permits and to develop Colorado’s impaired waters list. However, there are currently no analytical methods for analyzing PFAS in wastewaters (non-potable) that are approved for Clean Water Act monitoring per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 136 (Appendix B). Despite the fact that there are no analytical methods, monitoring for these parameters made it into the first Colorado permit on March 31, 2021.

    So what can we expect in the future? On November 22, 2020, the EPA released a memo that describes recommendations for an interim Federal NPDES permitting strategy for PFAS. The memo was developed by an internal workgroup, in which all EPA regions were represented. The memo presented three primary recommendations:

    1. The inclusion of PFAS in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit monitoring requirements, using a phased-in approach to account for ongoing EPA analytical method development.
    2. Stormwater monitoring and pollutant control for municipal and industrial stormwater permits, addressing PFAS using traditional controls such as control measures, monitoring, stormwater pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs)
    3. Information sharing, using established platforms, such as a PFAS-permitting compendium on the EPA’s NPDES Municipal Sources Resources website, and information sharing on the EPA’s NPDES Permit Writers’ Clearinghouse.

    Structure of PFOA

    Lesa Julian has worked for the City and County of Broomfield for 30 years.  She is currently the Environmental Services Superintendent.

  • 22 Mar 2021 10:22 PM | Natalie Love (Administrator)

    The Mpemba effect is the curious phenomenon that hot water can freeze faster than cold water. Consider that! A container of hot water, identical in all other aspects except temperature to another container of water, can freeze before the cooler water. Surprised? Confused? You are not alone! The question of whether this is real or not has been discussed for over 2300 years.

    The Mpemba effect is named after Erasto Mpemba. As a high school student in Tanzania, he re-invigorated the scientific discussion about this effect, along with a professor that worked with him. Mpemba was making ice cream by boiling milk and adding sugar, then freezing it. He noticed that the boiling hot mixture that he put into a freezer formed into ice cream faster than a cooler similar milk and sugar mixture that a fellow student had added to the freezer. (I think it is important that this fascinating effect was elevated in scientific circles through making ice cream faster than your friends.) At first Mpemba was more mocked than believed for his assertion, but through dogged determination Mpemba got a professor interested, and a series of university experiments supported Mpemba’s observation. Mpemba and the professor, Dr. Osborne, put out a paper together in 1969 entitled simply “Cool?” This increased scientific interest in this odd cooling effect.

    Mpemba was one in a long line of people looking into this effect. It had been noticed by none other than Aristotle in the 300s BC. Aristotle wrote that “The fact that water has previously been warmed contributes to its freezing quickly…” and implied that this was well known (if not well understood) by saying that “Many people, when they want to cool water quickly begin by putting it in the sun”. Aristotle was unable to empirically prove, or even put forth a reasonable mechanism for this effect.

    In the 1200s, Roger Bacon, an English philosopher and scientist, experimented with this then-called ‘hot begets cold quicker’ phenomenon without resolution.  In the 1400s (now 1700 years after Aristotle), the Italian physicist, doctor, and mathematician Giovanni Marliani is said to have the first empirical proof of this effect, although the reasons why were not understood. Francis Bacon wrote about hot water freezing quicker than cool water in 1620 in his “Novum Organum Vol VIII”, as did Rene’ Descartes in his 1637 “Les Meteores”. Over three hundred years later when Mpemba revived interest in this effect it was still not understood.

    After Mpemba reinvigorated discussion about this effect there was of course considerable doubt in the scientific community. And why not? The very idea of it seems to contradict or at least skirt basic rules of thermodynamics. The fact that the mechanism could not be explained, and that the Mpemba effect only worked (if it indeed did work) in certain circumstances and seemingly none of the experiments were able to isolate all other factors or be reproducible also cast doubt.

    Forty some years after the publication of “Cool?”, there was still controversy. In 2012 Britain’s Royal Society of Chemistry had a worldwide competition to find the best explanation of the Mpemba effect. It had 22,000 submissions (including one from the author). The winning submission (not this author’s) focused on four possible reasons for the effect. While none are proven to be the single reason for the effect, some think that a combination of these four plus an additional fifth possible reason known as “Super cooling” might account for the effect. Others deny still that the effect exists and point to some experiments showing this.

    Here are the explanations put forth for the Mpemba effect:

    1. Evaporation – hotter water evaporates more. Evaporation itself is a cooling effect, besides which hot water would have less mass to cool due to evaporation.
    2. Dissolved gasses – hot water contains less dissolved gasses (and boiling water removes almost all gasses). Less gasses could change the ability of the water to conduct heat, could reduce thermal insulation in the water, or could change the freezing point of the water.
    3. Convection – hot water will have greater temperature gradients and as water density is a product of temperature the cooling effect of convection currents from temperature gradients will affect the total cooling of the water.
    4. Surroundings – the theory that hot water somehow affects the surrounding of its container in such a way that facilitates quicker cooling. For example, a container of hot water might melt ice that the container is on, increasing physical contact between the container and the ice, which would assist cooling.
    5. Supercooling – the idea that cooler water would possibly need to supercool below 0 degrees C in order to actually freeze. This idea also incorporates the idea that a nucleation site might be needed in the cooler water in order to form ice crystals, while something called temperature shear in non-thermally homogenous cooling hot water would cause freezing closer to 0 degrees C for hot water.

    This is all just fascinating to me! The Mpemba effect to date has neither been totally disproved or proved. As they say, “We can put a human on the moon, but we still don’t know if cold water freezes before hot water.” Also, a great learning subtext to this story is that a young student put forth a proposition that seems preposterous, but that may be true. It is a lesson in keeping an open mind and not dismissing different ideas out of hand.

    What do you think? Could the Mpemba effect be true? Would it defy accepted laws of thermodynamics? Could it be the key to other learning? Or maybe more importantly, would it change how you make ice cubes at home? (We tried to test this several times in our freezer, but our experimental plan failed every time due to “Look – squirrel!”. However, my wife and I do agree that boiled water makes much prettier ice cubes).


    Richard MacAlpine

    Richard is a Lab Supervisor at Metro Wastewater Reclamation District in Denver. His opinions and any facts presented in this blog are his responsibility solely and do not reflect at all on his employer. Richard is also the RMWEA Lab Practices (LPC) Committee Chair and is on the RMWQAA Board.


    https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/hot_water.html More detail on the five main mechanisms considered to cause the Mpemba effect

    https://edu.rsc.org/download?ac=13093 Copy of Erasto Mpemba and Dr. Osborne’s 1969 paper “Cool?” in Physics Education, 1969

    https://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/health/18real.html A quick article arguing that while the Mpemba effect is real, its obverse (cold water boiling faster than hot water) is not

    https://www.nature.com/articles/srep37665#:~:text=The%20Mpemba%20effect%20is%20the,to%20the%20writings%20of%20Aristotle. Nature article arguing against the Mpemba effect

    http://www.eoht.info/page/Aristotle-Mpemba%20effect  Brief history of the Mpemba effect, general info, and how the Mpemba effect may apply to the Cold War (the social Mpemba effect).

    https://www.rsc.org/news-events/articles/2012/06-june/rsc-offers-1000-for-explanation-of-an-unsolved-legendary-phenomenon/ Royal Society of Chemistry Mpemba effect competition from 2012 (which again, the author did not win), and other info

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Marliani#cite_note-Hot_water_freezes_faster_than_cold_water-1  Marliani’s supposed empirical proof of the Mpemba effect, and his inability to ascribe a mechanism to it

    http://www.eoht.info/page/Roger%20Bacon Info on Roger Bacon, who was called the first scientist, was the originator of the scientific method, and one in a line of people who did not solve the Mpemba effect

Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software